Τέχνη ρητορική epub – Sharkmotorcyclehelmets.co.uk

With The Emergence Of Democracy In The City State Of Athens In The Years Around BC, Public Speaking Became An Essential Skill For Politicians In The Assemblies And Councils And Even For Ordinary Citizens In The Courts Of Law In Response, The Technique Of Rhetoric Rapidly Developed, Bringing Virtuoso Performances And A Host Of Practical Manuals For The Layman While Many Of These Were Little Than Collections Of Debaters Tricks, The Art Of Rhetoric Held A Far Deeper Purpose Here Aristotle Establishes The Methods Of Informal Reasoning, Provides The First Aesthetic Evaluation Of Prose Style And Offers Detailed Observations On Character And The Emotions Hugely Influential Upon Later Western Culture, The Art Of Rhetoric Is A Fascinating Consideration Of The Force Of Persuasion And Sophistry, And A Compelling Guide To The Principles Behind Oratorical Skill


10 thoughts on “Τέχνη ρητορική

  1. says:

    Not Aristotle s clearest or best organized work, but still part of the core curriculum of a liberal education.Why read Aristotle today Because he is one of the greatest minds in Western history, and such a person s well considered thoughts are inherently worth reading, if anything is.In addition, this book was deliberately aimed at those seeking to play an active role in a democratic society, to help them fulfill their function as citizens of a free society We in the West imagine ourselves mostly to be members of a free society, and in fact take this for granted But we tend not to participate in the political functioning of our society, and in general are not encouraged to do so Most particularly, we are not educated to do so.In the ancient world the idea of the liberal education was formed an education fitting for a free man, that is, one who was a participating citizen of a democratic state In ancient Greece the citizens themselves formed the government of their city states, and every citizen might expect to hold a government post at one or times in his life What knowledge did such a man need to fulfill his role in the best way Which faculties should he cultivate and which suppress Liberal education came to be envisaged as training in the seven liberal arts logic, grammar, rhetoric, mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy By medieval times these were split into two groups a higher trivium consisting of the first 3, and a lower quadrivium consisting of the latter 4 As Sister Miriam Joseph explains in her excellent book The Trivium The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric, these arts remain as relevant today as they ever were For the art called logic is simply the art of how to think accurately about reality the art of grammar is the art of expressing one s thoughts accurately in symbolic form, such as words and the art of rhetoric is the art of persuading others of the validity of one s thoughts Aristotle s book is probably still the most important text on this third art of the trivium.In broad strokes, Aristotle analyzes rhetoric and finds that it has 3 main applications, namely judicial, or talking about past events deliberative, or talking about future courses of action and so called epideictic, or talking about the present, which Aristotle says is mostly connected with formally praising and blaming people Facing one of these three tasks, the speaker or rhetor has 3 basic strategies of persuasion logical argument, or persuasion via facts and logic emotional argument, or finding language to arouse certain feelings in the audience and the so called moral argument, which consists in winning the audience s trust and good will through one s own character and demeanor Interestingly, Aristotle regards this last argument as the most persuasive element in a speech In terms of persuasion, how we say things is important than what we say.There are further detailed breakdowns of how to achieve these various aims, illustrated in many cases with examples.The translator, George A Kennedy, provides a summary of the main points of each chapter, along with interesting historical material and some notes about how Aristotle fits in with the flow of ancient teaching on rhetoric generally for it was a subject keenly studied in both Greece and Rome For my taste there is perhaps attention drawn than necessary to academic issues like the question of whether certain sections were later additions and other minutiae of translation In many cases he puts the original Greek term in brackets by the English word, which again is aimed at an academic reader In general though I found the translator s comments useful and illuminating.Like all of Aristotle s surviving works, this is a technical manual all of his publications for the general reader have been lost , and so you need some determination to get through it But our society is becoming ever less free, and it s not going to become free unless each of us takes responsibility for training ourselves to be free It won t happen by itself and our society governments, schools, institutions isn t doing it.A free society settles its differences through dialogue, not violence or fraud This book is still a major text on how to do that As such, it s well worth our time and attention all these centuries after it was first written.


  2. says:

    Aristotle defines Unmercifully And The Art of Rhetoric is no exception Aristotle disdained the sophist tradition of ancient Greece as much as Plato, but he also understood that rhetoric was a popular study of the day and it became another discipline he sought to master With a scientific eye and a mind toward philosophical value, Aristotle studied rhetoric as the power to observe the persuasiveness of which any particular matter admits pg 74 Ch 1.2 Rhetoric, when used appropriately, becomes a tool of the dialectic instead of one that subverts.So begins the dissection of speech There are three genres of rhetoric deliberative, forensic and epideictic display But regardless for what purpose the rhetorician speaks, there are three components to each speech ethos the ethics of the speaker , pathos the emotions of the audience and logos the logic of the words.What follows is a practical handbook for the orator Part psychology, part theory part logic, The Art of Rhetoric lists considerations for the public speaker The age of the audience, the nature of a government s citizenry and a thorough examination of the motives for various emotions fill Book II In many ways, Book II resembles the Nicomachean Ethics in its utilitarian analysis of what drives human beings.However, Book III resembles Poetics in its methodical analysis of persuasive writing Aristotle covers the value and pitfalls of metaphor, similes and other devices He examines what makes frigid language and rhythmic speech As with Book II, it is chocked full of examples of the good and bad.To fully appreciate The Art of Rhetoric, one must have a strong familiarity with its context Which, quite honestly, I don t Undoubtedly, the competing schools of rhetoric defined Athenian education and Aristotle was competing against Isocrates for students Though most likely one of the first and most comprehensive collection of thoughts on the components of rhetoric, for the modern reader the ideas are at times dated and over generalized The examples that Aristotle serves as benchmarks for various enthymemes truncated syllogisms relying on commonly understood principles are unknown to modern audiences Likewise, his rudimentary psychological analysis of his audience is overbroad though still impressive given his pioneering of this discipline at the time.For historical importance, this is most likely a five star work But we have the advantage of not living in ancient Greece In terms of enjoyment, and actual value for the modern reader, these ideas regarding communication and public speaking have been conveyed clearly and effectively by other writers.__________________________________________________________One interesting comparison of East West thought can be seen by these two passages First, Aristotle Surely everyone would agree that one or of these is happiness If, then happiness is some such thing, its elements must be Gentle birth, a wide circle of friends, a virtuous circle of friends, wealth, creditable offspring, extensive offspring and a comfortable old age also the physical virtues e.g health, beauty, strength, size and competitive prowess , reputation, status, good luck and virtue pg 87, Ch 1.5, circa 4th century B.C emphasis added Compared to Lie Yukou, circa 5th century B.C, whose sayings were compiled in the Lieh Tzu Liezi in the 3rd or 4th century A.D There are four things, states a Taoist work of this age the Lieh Tzu third century A.D , that do not allow people to have peace The first is long life, the second is reputation, the third is rank, and the fourth is riches Those who have these things fear ghosts, fear men, fear power, and fear punishment They are called fugitives Oriental Mythology Campbell, Joseph pg 435


  3. says:

    Aristoteles in Platon un Gorgias da bahsetti i Retorik kavram n bir st seviyeye ta d eseri The Art of Rhetoric Retorik , insani tutumlara dair m kemmele yak n tan mlamar yla adeta bir hayat s zl niteli inde K skan l k, kibir, gurur, h rs, ya l l k, gen lik gibi bir s r kavram n a klamalar n okuma ans buldu umuz eserde zellikle ilk iki kitab okurken nl filozofun zekas na ve g zlemlerine hayran kal yorsunuz te yandan, e retileme ve konu ma tekniklerinden bahsetti i daha ok Poetika yla bir b t nl k ta yan nc kitab n ise ilk ikisi kadar etkili ve etkileyici oldu unu s yleyemeyece im Buna ra men Aristoteles in en anla l r ve en iyi eserlerinden biri olan Retorik in kesinlikle okunmas gereken felsefe kitaplar ndan biri oldu una ku ku yok 28.04.2015 stanbul, T rkiyeAlp Turguthttp www.filmdoktoru.com kitap labo


  4. says:

    Right off the bat, Im not going to say I understood it all I felt like a fish out of water for a bit with Aristotles discussions on enthymemes and syllogism and so on mostly because my previous experience with Classical Philosophy centred on choice passages relating to social history rather than on philosophy for philosophies sake I had read parts of his discussions on emotions for a social history class, but the bulk of the book was new for me I went into it looking for a better understanding of what Rhetoric is and the best ways to practice it Ultimately, I believe I got that Aristotle is unbelievably insightful and I really have the desire to read of his works to get a better picture of his skills of observation and thought.


  5. says:

    You may never have read anything by Aristotle but if you ve ever taken a college writing course, you ve had him as your teacher The Art of Rhetoric did so much to define how subsequent generations, and civilizations, regarded the task of crafting persuasive language that it can truly be regarded as a founding text Methodically, Aristotle sets forth his sense of how the writer s handling of character and emotion contributes to success in rhetorical terms His insights regarding style and composition, written for a Greek audience of the 4th century B.C., are surprisingly relevant for people writing in English in the 21st century A.D Readers sometimes find Aristotle s list heavy style dry unlike Plato, he does not present philosophical ideas in the form of a dialogue between characters But his insights on rhetoric still do much to shape the way in which composition courses are taught at universities and colleges worldwide.


  6. says:

    I m sure it s excellent, necessary, brilliantly designed, etc But so is a sewer system, and you don t want to spend too much time there either.


  7. says:

    The first book of Aristotle s highly taxonomical Rhetoric opens with a parsing of dialectic and rhetoric He sets up the latter as an art of persuasion related to but nevertheless distinguishable from the former After exploring the usefulness of syllogisms and enthymemes for both arts, Aristotle sets out his three basic categories of rhetorical discourse deliberative, judicial or forensic , and epideictic He spends the rest of the first book exploring topics related to the Greek topos, for place useful for finding and constructing arguments in each of the three categories The second book is generally focused on pathos, ethos, and logos, with Aristotle cataloging the various ways rhetors can make use of emotion, character, and reason as means of persuasion He works through emotions first, explaining how various emotions can be useful to rhetors as well as characterizing the states of minds of those feeling particular emotions He then discusses ethos, exploring the character of various audiences young versus old, for instance and how a speaker might thus adapt a speech based on a particular audience s character Lastly, he delineates varieties of logical argument examples, maxims, enthymemes, and topoi The final book deals with lexis, somewhat synonymous with style, and taxis, which approximates arrangement Aristotle thus considers how various stylistic strategies such as energeia which George Kennedy translates as bringing before the eyes and metaphor can be used to enhance a discourse s persuasiveness depending on its classification, then breaks down the parts of arguments the prooemion, the narration, the proof, the interrogation of the opposition, and the epilogue.Kennedy s edition also includes a translation of Gorgias Encomium of Helen In this encomium, Gorgias sets out to refute those who rebuke Helen whose ill omened name has become a memorial of disasters I wish, by giving logic to language, to free the accused of blame and to show that her critics are lying and to demonstrate the truth and to put an end to ignorance 2 After narrating Helen s history and parentage, Gorgias argues that either by fate s will and gods wishes and necessity s decrees she did what she did or by force reduced or by words seduced or by love induced 6 He claims that Helen is blameless if fate or force were to blame, as by nature the stronger force is not prevented by the weaker and Helen, the weaker in this case, cannot be blamed for fate or force s irresistibility But if speech logos persuaded her, Gorgias argues, it is still not difficult to exonerate Helen For speech, he claims, is a powerful lord that with the smallest and most invisible body accomplishes most godlike works 8 Because it is easy neither to remember the past nor to consider the present nor to predict the future on most subjects most people take opinion as counselor to the soul 11 What is there, then, to prevent young Helen from being carried off by speech just as if constrained by force Her mind was swept away by persuasion 12 Speech is as strong as necessity, and t he power of speech has the same effect on the condition of the soul as the application of drugs to the state of bodies some instill courage, some drug and bewitch the soul with a kind of evil persuasion 14 After setting up love as a similarly irresistible force, Gorgias concludes, By speech I have removed disgrace from a woman I wished to write a speech that would be Helen s encomion and my own paignion an amusement or plaything 20.


  8. says:

    Warning Translation disaster eviri Mehmet Dogan, YKY ok fena Eyvah eyvah Zaten ingili eden, neden bilmiyorum Hayir yani neden bu kadar k t bi eviriyle Aristo okunmak zorunda kalinmis ki Bu y zden 1 Yoksa ne haddime canim st d Arist ya bu puani vermek.Bunun disinda, bilhassa ikinci b l m ok nemli ok detayli bir duygular epistemolojisi De Anima ve etik kitaplarindaki duygular ve hisler nazariyelerine paralel okumalar yapilabilir Hatta daha teye ge ilerek Platon la, Cicero ve Seneca yla, Descartes in ve Spinoza nin hisler, duygular ve tutkular zerine teorileriyle karsilastirmali okumalar yapilabilir.


  9. says:

    The only rhetoric textbook a classical school should ever need I exaggerate slightly but not much Aristotle s Art of Rhetoric has everything And it s all brilliant I ve been using this Book I particularly as my 11th grade writing curriculum this year, and it s amazing This translation Waterfield in particular is much easier for my students to grasp than other translations out there, and it doesn t take much to turn his advice here into a series of really practical writing assignments Thousands of years after its publication, it still may be the best work on rhetoric out there I learned a lot reading through this and will be heavily using this moving forward whenever I teach high school Rhetoric A work.Rating 4.5 5 Stars Extremely Good.


  10. says:

    Don t be put off by the rating Worth a read.