Parmenides, A Lecture Course Delivered By Martin Heidegger At The University Of Freiburg In , Presents A Highly Original Interpretation Of Ancient Greek Philosophy A Major Contribution To Heidegger S Provocative Dialogue With The Pre Socratics, The Book Attacks Some Of The Most Firmly Established Conceptions Of Greek Thinking And Of The Greek World The Central Theme Is The Question Of Truth And The Primordial Understanding Of Truth To Be Found In Parmenides Didactic Poem Heidegger Highlights The Contrast Between Greek And Roman Thought And The Reflection Of That Contrast In Language He Analyzes The Decline In The Primordial Understanding Of Truth And, Just As Importantly, Of Untruth That Began In Later Greek Philosophy And That Continues, By Virtue Of The Latinization Of The West, Down To The Present Day Beyond An Interpretation Of Greek Philosophy, Parmenides Volume Of Heidegger S Collected Works Offers A Strident Critique Of The Contemporary World, Delivered During A Time That Heidegger Described As Out Of Joint There is not that much books about Parmenides so Heidegger did almost the best.Parmenides is very important from pre Socratic times For Socrates, Platon, Aristotle there are many influence from him It is not easy to understand him and his ONE but once you are able to go into his philosophy, it is definitely extraordinary and opens amazing perception to yourself, universe, I would say everything.Platon wrote Parmenides Guthrie also wrote about him and it s worth to read Do you know Kundera s Unbearable Lightness of Being is coming from where Please search for Parmenides.. This book barely talks about Parmenides at all, it just uses his philosophy as a starting point to explore Heidegger s idea that the Greek concept of truth is different from ours He mostly uses etymological arguments to do this, but does the etymology of a word really color the meaning when the people using the word are unfamiliar with the etymology There s also a few glimpses here of Heidegger the Nazi something I didn t see in Being and Time or Heraclitus Seminar , with typically obscure comments about the German spirit and saving German culture , which probably meant something very specific to his audience in 1943 when this lecture was delivered I was unsure about Heidegger for a while but I think this book tips the scale in the nonsense direction. Despite the title, the book actually doesn t talk about the Greek philosopher Parmenides It only uses him as stepping stone to explain the author s philosophy.That said, this is an important lead for anyone seeking to understand Heidegger His concept of Aletheia is thoroughly discussed even to the point of linguistic analysis.Warning the book is repetitive Only recommended for those big into the man and his thought. This is not always treated as one of Heidegger s core works It is a series of lectures given in 1942 1943, ostensibly on Parmenides and Heraclitus, but I found it to be a very helpful historical account of key themes in Heidegger s later thought unconcealment, the open, language, and technology.He doesn t argue for a position here he sets out a history A history of truth, really a history of the corruption of truth He takes as his starting point Paremenides poem, and in particular The Way of Truth , where truth is a translation of aletheia.Heidegger reconstructs aletheia through an examination of the word s history and its use in Greek literature and philosophy His high level claim is that truth has undergone a transition and corruption In the early Greek world, aletheia, faithfully translated as unconcealment , inherently reveals and withdraws at the same time Truth isn t the kind of full understanding or mirroring of reality conveyed by the modern conception of truth as correctness , correspondence between idea or word and reality.Truth for the Greeks, in Heidegger s account, maintains a kind of autonomy His treatment here brings together consistent themes in his later thought, in which language and art participate in the revealing of the world to us, granted to us but not exhausted by that revealing Although not his term, I always find myself coming back to the autonomy of reality as something that has been banished by modern thought and technology.Heidegger in one passage discusses the related notion of the mysterious , saying that what is mysterious has been reduced to the unexplained by modern thought Modern thought works within a way of understanding that it takes for THE way of understanding Anything that doesn t yield to it is not inherently mysterious, just not yet explained What is lost is the acceptance that not everything yields itself to explanation, that the very idea of understanding anything means also leaving behind a mystery, that is, anything that doesn t yield itself to that understanding whatever reveals also conceals.The fatal modern mistake here is to suppose that what is mysterious is just what is currently beyond our knowledge beyond the current reach of science It s not that our methods haven t reached what is mysterious because our knowledge just hasn t progressed that far It is that no matter how far we progress with our methods, precisely because of our methods, the mysterious will remain Absolute knowledge, full transparency of reality is an illusion, an illusion born of the arrogance to think that reality fully yields itself to our understanding.You can see here as well the connection between this sense that all can be explained and understood and the attitude of technology, that all is here for our use Reality, in yielding itself to us, is what it is for us and nothing It loses its inherency in losing its mystery.These are consistent themes through Heidegger s later writing, and the great advantage here is the coherent presentation of them via a history of truth.In addition to elucidating his own thoughts on technology and the degradation of thinking, there is a great deal here of interest in Heidegger s account of the history of philosophy.During the second half of the book, Heidegger presents an interpretation of Plato s Myth of Er He understands the River Lethe in Plato s myth in the light of the contrast between aletheia as unconcealing and lethe often translated as forgetfulness as withdrawing concealment If we understand Plato s myth in this way, his doctrine of recollection which Heidegger doesn t discuss directly here becomes something very different from the pyschological movement through knowing, forgetting, and recalling The demonstration of recollection in the Meno then would not be understood as a recovering of innate knowledge so much as a demonstration of the dialectic as how what is true reveals itself.This is an important book to read, I think, if we want to understand Heidegger s later thought Taking an historical perspective allows us to see those main themes of his later thought from a different angle than some of the later purely thematic treatments such as The Question Concerning Technology, On the Way to Language, or the Discourse on Thinking. One of the clearest accounts of what Heidegger means by Unconcealment, particularly in the context of ancient Greek philosophy. I think the founders of the judeo christian tradition had good intentions but according to heidegger this god commands while the Greek gods merely hint When the Greeks were on their way to Troy they saw a lightning bolt from Zeus on their right This hint from Zeus was a good sign or could it be concealing disaster It is merely a hint and could both reveal and conceal He also compares Rilke to Freud although he doesn t name the founder of psychoanalysis Both of these see a continuum between man and animal For them, the open is like sugar dissolved in water or a flower in air In this way, animals are superior to men Animals and ,therefore, the instinctual man is without bounds and limitless Heidegger has a totally different of the open The open gives both unconcealment and concealment and exists for man only The open is Being and beings Being is not the opposite of beings and has no opposite That is why it is so difficult for me to think Being and the open Man gives the open because unlike animals, he has the word Man is in the open when he says of a being it is and it suddenly comes into unconcealment Addendum I dreamt some girls dropped acid on me last night and I was seeing all kinds of psychedelic colors It was sort of an unnerving dream and I don t think heidegger has no explanation for strange phenomena like hearing voices and the unconscious, Freud and jung at least try to deal with such phenomena as hearing voices Voices coming out of TVS,movies,etcand the radio all are causes of the modern problem of mental illness When you hear a voice out of a radio, this is like a mysterious voice coming from a god Hearing voices not connected to human beings in the flesh is a form of insanity Premonitions of all this are in Dracula and Frankenstein Joseph Campbell talks of no bounds in his lectures in a positive way and this is like Freud This is like the chatter of voices coming from the radio which the instinctual man hears as a disembodied voice or god One has to try to start a dialogue with and relate to these gods if one is to keep from going insane. It s a good Heidegger book especially since Parmenides is so often quoted by Heidegger Like most Heidegger books the title is misleading The book is primarily about Aletheia It is a good read if you re a Heidegger junkie because he even grounds some terms like Uncanny which plays such a big deal in Being and Time Overall if you haven t read a lot of his books I would read something else first. For one thoroughly indoctrinated in Heideggerian phenomenology, this work is nothing short of exhilarating It offers some of the most revealing glimpses at Heidegger s thought process as he undertakes a close reading of the scant existing fragments of the pre Socratic philosopher Parmenides The classroom setting, while much critical in the volume dedicated to Heraclitus, manages to convey the sense of being taught or instructed, rather than spoken at, and this certainly helps the reader follow Heidegger through the rigorous program of intellectual gymnastics common to all his work.It is important to note that this seminar, along with much of his work in the 1940s, is the direct result of concerns he developed in the mid to late 1930s, when he disengaged from direct confrontations with the likes of Aristotle, Kant and Hegel, and fell victim to the seductive texts of the pre Socratics and Nietzsche the very beginning and the very end of metaphysics, respectively Works like Contributions to Philosophy and Mindfulness underscored his growing fascination with the blind, infantile grasping of the originary thought of the oldest of the ancients, and in Parmenides it becomes much clearer exactly why this is the case as he articulates not only the inner workings of the texts of Parmenides, but the implications of interpreting this work on history, which, for Heidegger, consists of tracing the essence of truth as we Westerners meandered farther and farther from being and truth as such.The end of this process is Nietzsche, who decried the role of the church in striking the final blow against the originary truths of the ancients through its appropriation and self serving reinterpretation of the Greeks But the process began here, with the pre Socratics initial attempts to understand their world, and the subsequent diluting of this thought through various cultural, political, and historical filters For a man whose primary concern was the overcoming of metaphysics as understood by the lay philosopher, Parmenides and his peers stood as a fount of fecundity of thought and inspiration in preparation for the leaping forth heralded in Contributions For Heidegger, only an understanding of previous origins can truly inform the attempt to establish new ones. Absorbing read that was well worth sticking with despite the obviously heavy weight of the text This really felt like you reading someone s mind No conclusions were reached or corners were turned, the book just flowed immaculately and you came away feeling like you had experienced something special.